c. 2500-1600 BC Civilisation established in the Indus Valley with the cities of Harappa Mohenjodaro.
c. 1500 BC Aryans invade northern India. Hindu sacred texts of the Vedas are written
c. 563 BC Birth of Gautama Siddharatha (Buddha).
521-486 BC The Persian King, Darius, occupies Punjab and Sind. Buddhism and Jainism develop.
321-184 BC Northern India is ruled by the Mauryan emperors; the most notable in Ashoka(269-232 BC).
AD 319-606 Gupta Empire is established in the north. Science, Literature and arts flourish.
550-1190 Chalukyas  and Rashtrakas rule central India from Karnataka. Pallavas and Cholas rule the south and established trading links with Indonesia.


C. 850 Anangpal builds Lal Kot, Delhi's first city.
1000-1300 Hoysala Empire rules the South.
1192 Muhammed of Ghor invades the north and makes Qtab-ud-Din Aibak Delhi's first ruler.


1206 Qtab-ud-Din becomes sultan of Delhi. His dynasty is overthrown in 1296 by Feroz Shah, a Turk, who builds Delhi's second city east of lal Kot
1321 Ghias-ud-Din Tughlaq is proclaimed sultan. He starts building Tughlaqabad, the third city of Delhi 
1325 Muhammaed-bin Tughlaq becomes sultan and builds Jahanpath, the fourth city.In 1351 Feroz Shah Tughlq builds Ferozabad, the fifth city.
1414 Power passes to the sayyids.
1451 Buhlbal Lodi, an Afgan Nobel, captures the throne and founds Lodhi dynasty.
14th-16th centuries Islam is established throughout the north. The south remains independent under the Hindu Vijayanager dynasty.
1498 Vasco de Gama established Portuguese trading posts, followed by the Dutch, French and English.


1526 Babur, a warload from samarkand, defeats the Sultan of Delhi at the Battle of Panipat, and proclaims himself the Mughal emperor.
1540 Humayan succeeds his father, Babur, and starts to build Purana Qila, Delhi's sixth city.
1556 Akbar is enthroned, aged 13. He pushes the borders of the Mughal empire three-quarters of the way across the sub-continent.
1565 Akbar starts to built the red Fort in his capital city, Agra . Meanwhil, Muslim forces bring down the Vijayanager dynasty in the south, which in turn is conquered by the Mughals.
1569-74 Akbar builds his "dream city" of Fatehpur Sirki, near Agra, and moves his capital there, but the court returns to Agra ten years later. Akbar then starts to build his tomb at Sikandra.
1600 Queen Elizabeth I grants a trading charter to the British East India Company, and in 16o8 English merchants set up a trading base at Surat in Gujarat. 
1605 Akbar is succeeded by his son, Jahangir.
1627 Shan Jahan, Akbar's grandson, becomes emperor. In 1632 he starts to build the Taj Mahal in memory of his wife. In 1638 he moves the capital from Agra to Delhi and lays the foundations for Shahjahanbad, the seventh city. He begins work on Lal Qila (the red fort) in 1639
1659-1707 Aurangzeb becomes emperor by imprisoning his father, Shah Jahan, in the Red For, Agra, and killing his brothers. Following his death the Mughal empire declines. Calcutta begins to expand as a trading post of East India Company 
1739 Nadir Shah, a Persian king, invades Delhi and slaughters 30,000 residents of Shanjahanbad before returning to persia with the Peacock Throne.
1756-63 In the Seven Years' War the British East india Company ousts the French from Bengal.
1857 India Mutiny breaks out in Meerut, where sepoys are incited by a rumour that a new issue of bullets is greased is with animal fat from pigs, which are sacred to Hindus.

 THE BRITISH RAJ: 1858-1947

1858 The British crown impress direct rule and appoints a viceroy as the sovereign's representative .
1877 Queen Victoria is proclaimed empress of India.
1885 The First political party, the India National Congress, is founded.
1911 George V, King and Emperor, announces that the capital will be transferred from Calcutta to Delhi.
1915 Mohandas Gandhi, Known as Mahatma ("great soul"), returns from south Africa and starts to campaign for passive resistance to British rule.
1919 General Dyer orders his Gurkha troops to open fire on a peaceful but illegal anti-British protest meeting in Amritsar, killing 379 and wounding 1,200 people in the courtyard of Jaliyanwala Bagh.
1930 Gandhi's "Quit India" drive gains momentum with his Dandi Salt march from Ahmedabad to protest against taxes on Indian-produced salt.
1931 New Delhi inaugurated as the capital of India.
1935 Mohammed Ali Jinnah, head of the muslim League.calls for a new Muslim nation of Pakistan.

  INDEPENDENCE (1947 to present)

1947 India gains independence from British at midnight on 15 August. Jawaharlal Nehru become its first prime minister.
1948 Mahatma Gandhi is assassinated on 30 January by a Hindu fanatic
1950 The constitution of India comes into force.
1964 Nehru dies. in 1965, his successor, Lal Bahadur ,repulses Pakistan's attacks on India in the Rann of Kutch and Kashmir.

PRECENDING PAGES: mural of a royal hunt, jodhpur.

Left The son of the Nawab of Banda c. 1844
Right Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948), leader of India's campaign for home rule .
1966 Indira Gandhi, Nehru's daughter (no relation to Mahatma Gandhi) becomes prime minister.
1971 War with east Pakistan leads to the creation of the new independent  nation of Bangladesh.
1975-77 Indira Gandhi imposes a State of Emergency, suspends civil liberties and imprisons her political opponents. She is defeated in the 1977 elections.
1977-79 Janata Party in power under Desai.
1980 Indira returns as prime minister.
1984 Sikhs demand independence for Punjab; 1,000 people die when the Indian army storms the Golden Temple in Amritsar, the holiest Sikh Shrine. Indira  Gandhi is assassinated on 31 October. Her son, Rajiv Gandhi , becomes prime minister. 
1988 New opposition Party, Janata Dal, established.
1989 congress (i) loses majority in general election; Janata Dal forms minority government
1990 Communal and civil disturbances in Jammu and Kashmir and Assam. Religious Violence in Punjab.
1991 Rajiv Gandhi is assassinated. Congress forms a minority government led by Narasimha Rao.
1992-93 Destruction of Babri mosque in Ayodhya by Hindu militants provokes riots nationwide.
1996 Right-wing Hindu nationalist Bharitya Janata Party(BJP) falls from power after two weeks in office. A leftist coalition under Deve Gowda,later succeeded by IK Gujral, Takes control.
1998 Election victory for BJP; their leader Atal Behari Vajpayee becomes prime minister.


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