There are in all four Vedas -
The oldest of all vedas. The hymns of Rigveda are amongst the oldest writings known to the mankind. They are short and are addressed to the great powers of Nature, to Indra the God of firmament, to Fire, to Moon & to Sun.
Total number of hymns in Rigveda are 1020. Their composition was doubtless the work of many men and of long periods of time. They bear evident marks of having been handed down by traditions and although they were arranged and collected in their present forms about ten centuries before the Christian era, a long time must have passed before they were brought together by the sage , who from his performace of this work is called Vyasa the arranger.The hymns of Rigveda contain very little poetry of an agreeable or elevated order. The chief desires expressed are for riches , victory and various temporal blessings. Moral sentiments rarely occur ; the hymns addressed to Varuna contain the most.
The history of Yajurveda differs from other vedas as it is marked by a dissension between its own schools far more important than the differences which separeted the schools of each other in veda. In Yajurveda there are two aspects The Black Yajurveda and the White Yajurveda. The contents of both the divisions of Yajurveda are similar in many respects.
The vajasaneyi- samnhita or the samnhita of White Yajurveda exists in the recension of the Madhyandina and Kanva School. The principal Brahamana of the Black Yajurveda is the Taittiriya Brahamana with the commentary of Sayana.
- Sama Veda
Saman is the name of the third Veda which in the Bhagwat gita is called the best of three. It appears to be little more than a recast of the rich , consisting chiefly of the same hymns broken up and arranged so as to be chanted during the various expiatory ceremonies. Thus while the Rich is said to be in regular metre to be recited aloud; and the Yajush consists chiefly consists of prose to be unaudibly muttered.
The name of the fourth veda created from the Northern mouth of Brahma. It was arranged by Vyasa . The illustrious sage Sumanta taught this veda to his pupil Kabandha , who made it two fold. The principal subject of difference in the Sanmhitas of the Atharva Veda are five kalapas or ceremonials.
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